Predecessors of this type of decorative technique include the rough-coated Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire bear jugs and salt-glazed wares. Lathe-mounted greenware unfired pottery at the leather-hard stage was first coated with bands of slip figs. On July 6, 1765, Josiah wrote to Mr. Elapsed time is generally two to three seconds. The jug has toffee-colored and black slip bands and green-glazed rouletted bands, the central area decorated with designs cut through the slip on an engine-turning lathe, using only the edge cam to reveal the body color. In most cases, this was done with a single-chambered slip cup fitted with three or four parallel tubes.
An early clue to the use of this tool can be found in the description of a patent granted to Richard Waters of Lambeth on October 23, 1811. Although slip marbling is one of the most commonly found slip decorations on hemispherical bowls, it is rarely found on the London shape fig. The body also has a band of black slip-filled checkered rouletting, a press-molded spout, and an extruded strap handle with foliate terminals; the cover has a tipped acorn knop.
Ceramics in America 2001
A close-up view of the three colors of slip as they emerge from the three tubes of the slip cup. The decoration on those fragments occurs on an earthenware body, the color of which varied from a pale buff to a dark red. Whiteware pint mug with mocha decoration in an unusual diagnostic color. In the first decade of the nineteenth century, the shape of these bowls changed quite abruptly. Wadsworth Atheneum, 1985 , p.
Mug, probably Scotland, ca. Some recent archaeological evidence suggests these four-colored, slip-trailed examples are from the Annfield Pottery of John Thomson in Glasgow. Wadsworth Atheneum, 1985 , p. For private circulation, 1903 , pp. Today, when we look at the broad range of slip decoration on utilitarian pots made for everyday use, we do so with the knowledge of the principles of form from the Bauhaus, the theories on the interaction of color from Josef Albers, and the artistic freedom introduced by the abstract expressionists. The wares of the mid-nineteenth century and later lacked the brighter, earthier colors of the earlier wares.
The broad slip band on mugs of this period is usually in the tan- to olive-colored range. Contrasting with that function was the element of chance that entered into the decoration of most dipped wares. A detail of a leather-hard mug body as it is being cut.
The contribution of the British slipware manufacturers cannot be overstated. Building upon earlier technology, slip decoration was employed on a wide range of earthenwares. In creating the dipped fan pattern, the object to be decorated was dipped partway into a pool of striped or marbled slip. Today, when archaeologists uncover large quantities of dipped sherds, the visual impact is still significant to the contemporary eye.
This is from the secondary droplet shown in fig. Note the smaller, secondary droplet falling behind. Above the verification mark is the printed mark of the Bell Hotel, Radstock, whose bar this mug was made for.
In this case, the manufacturer complied with prevailing English law requiring vessels of specific capacity to be so marked and verified by the weights and measures oYcials. The fluid employed is a preparation of tobacco-water; and in applying it the effect is brought out with but little waste of either time or labour. Other types of slip decoration belong in this overview. Ward and William N. In later years, the British government went so far as to establish the ideal jug shape for pouring most efficiently. Period examples were made of tinplate or earthenware.
Hemispherical bowl in the Chinese shape, the rim painted inside and out in a familiar chinoiserie pattern above a field of marbled slip. Water bottle and basin, Great Britain, ca. On July 6, 1765, Josiah wrote to Mr. It may have also been produced at the Downshire creamware factory in Belfast, Northern Ireland. An 1833 observer describes the function of this tool, which was greatly employed throughout the potteries:.
Most multiple, parallel trailed lines of slip found on dipped wares are a single color. In practice, conditions varied so that, for example, too much moisture in the body slowed the absorption rate, allowing the top layer of slip to continue moving as the object rotated on the lathe. An example would be e02r 379. Archaeological evidence from the site of the Staffordshire potter William Greatbatch has been extensively documented and provides some insight into the production of marbled slip on creamwares and pearlwares. Jug, probably Welsh, ca. These marks include a reference to the throne, the date and the excise district number fig.
It is likely that local potteries served local excise districts, so it is probable that a mug bearing that marking would have been made at T. Marbled slip, in contrast to agate decoration, appears more fluid, with longer, smoother divisions between shades and colors. It exhibits signs of heavy use, a common characteristic of surviving dipped wares, since these wares were intended for use.